Kazakhstan’s democracy has consistently become more Westernized and stable since Kazakhstan gained independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991.
The executive power is under the President and the Senate and the Mazhilis (lower house) are granted the legislative responsibilities. The judiciary is comprised of a Constitutional Council and Supreme Court.
Kazakhstan has been completing a gradual transition to a democratic law-governed state since early 90s after gaining its independence from the former Soviet Union. During the transition period, Kazakhstan underwent great changes making significant progress in the democratization of society. By 1993, the country had introduced the principle of the separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches, and held parliamentary elections. The democratic principles and electoral process were legislated in the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted in January 1993.
Today, Kazakhstan’s legislative culture guarantees political pluralism and a multiparty system. The country takes important initiatives towards the decentralization of the public administration system, introducing new technologies, such as a system of “electronic government”, which will expand the availability of public services for citizens.
Kazakhstan made considerable efforts to create an independent judiciary. It supports human rights and the activities of non-governmental organizations. In 2002, the President of Kazakhstan approved decree establishing the institution of the Commissioner for Human Rights.